Veggies - Bell peppers "special Bacterial Spot disease"

Study Investigator: J. Curtis, Phd

Location of Study: Florida, USA, open field

Study Period: May- July 2018

[T3,4,5] are the main Programs with VEGRO® considered in Open Field for this experiment

DAP:  Number of Days After Precedent application

App 1

1 Pt/Acre from 1st flowers, (GS+Vegro®)

App 2

1 Pt/acre, 7 DAP

App 3

1 Pt/acre, 7 DAP

App 4

1 Pt/acre 7 DAP

App 5

1 Pt/Acre, 7 DAP

App 6

1 Pt/Acre, 7 DAP

App 7

1 Pt/Acre, 7 DAP

TREATMENTS

Plants were maintained  at a commercial level with both fungicide (twice weekly applications), insecticide (VYDATE and BT) and fertilzer (liquid fertilizer 6-0-6 through the drip every other day at the rate of 25 Gals/Acre). This is the grower standard and/or control.

Applied: A,B,C,D,E,F,G and replicated 4 times

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Treatment 1 [T1]: Grower Standard AKA GS1

Applied: A,B,C,D,E,F,G and replicated 4 times

  • • Untreated, nothing added to the GS
  • • It corresponds to the GS1

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Treatment 2 [T2], Grower Standard 2 AKA GS2: 

Applied: A,B,C,D,E,F,G and replicated 4 times

  • • Grower Std (GS1)
  • • Manzate max @ 2 Qts/Acre
  • • Kocide 2000 @ 3lb/Acre
  • • Bravo Weatherstick @ 1.5 Pt/Acre 

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Treatment 3 [T3]: 

Applied: A,B,C,D,E,F,G and replicated 4 times

  • • Grower Std (GS1)
  • Vegro @ 1 Pt per acre

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Treatment 4 [T4]:

Applied: A,B,C,D,E,F,G and replicated 4 times

  • • Grower Std (GS1)
  • • Manzate max @ 2 Qts/Acre
  • • Kocide 2000 @ 3lb/Acre
  • • Bravo Weatherstick @ 1.5 Pt/Acre 
  • Vegro @ 1 Pt/Acre

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Treatment 5 [T5]:

Applied: A,B,C,D,E,F,G and replicated 4 times

  • • Grower Standard (GS1)
  • • Vegro @ 1 Pt/Acre
  • • Manzate max @ 2 Qts/Acre
  • • Kocide 2000 @ 3lb/Acre
  • • Bravo Weatherstick @ 1.5 Pt/Acre
  • • 0-28-26 @ 2 Qt/Acre

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APPLICATIONS

• Foliar Applications (Apps. A-G; Trts. 2-5).

• 7 (seven) total as: A,B,C,D,E,F,G

• Foliar applications were made on: 5/17/2018 (App. A), 5/24/2018 (App. B), 5/31/2018 (App. C), 6/7/2018 (App. D), 6/14/2018 (App. E), 6/21/2018 (App. F) and 6/28/2018 (App. G).  

• These foliar applications were made with a hand-held boom (CO2 operated, 40 PSI) fitted with three nozzles 

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EVALUATIONS:
BACTERIAL SPOT SEVERITY (%)

The percentage (%) severity of bacterial spot (0 = no symptoms…..100% = dead plants) was evaluated on 60 plants (1 row side) of each plot on 6/7/2018, 6/14/2018, 6/21/2018 and 6/28/2018.

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FRUIT COUNT & WEIGHT (lb)

All fruit in each plot were harvested on 7/2/2018 and counted and weighed (lb).

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FRUIT GRADING & MARKETABILITY

All harvested fruit were graded into six (6) categories and based on size using USDA guidelines (1 1/9 bu.box, 20 to 30 lb):

• Jumbo - 3 3/4 inch diam.,  3 1/2inch length (45 count and fewer).

• Extra Large - 3 1/2 inch diam, 3 1/2 inch length (46-55 count).

• Large - 3 1/4 inch diam., 3 inch length (56-70 count).

• Medium - 3 inch diam., 3 inch diam., 2 1/2 inch length (71-85 count).

• Small - 2 1/2 inch diam., 2 inch length (86-110 count).

• Trash

The percentage (%) of fruit in each of the six categories was then calculated.

It is important to note that the USDA recommendations for sizing are a guideline and there are variations of grading amongst growers.  For example, pepper may be graded as follows:

• Jumbo - 3 1/2 inch diam. and larger.

• Extra Large - 3 inch diam., 3 1/2 inch length.

• Large -2 1/2 inch diam.,3 inch length.

• Medium- 2 inch diam., 2 1/2 inch length.

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METHODOLOGY
FIELD AND PLANTING

• This trial was conducted in open field at the Better Crops Research Farm: Block 11, Section N, Beds 1-7.

• Each plot was 30 ft in length x 2 beds (30 ft length x 12 ft width).

• Each plot had 120 plants and each treatment was replicated four (4) times.  

• Treatments were arranged in Beds 2, 3, 5 and 6.  

• These treatment beds were separated by an untreated buffer rowsin Beds 1, 4 and 7.

• Plastic beds (32 inch top, 6 inch tall) were prepared on a 6 ft row spacing.  

• Bell pepper (cv. revolution) were transplanted in two row/bed (12 inch plant spacing) on 4/19/2018.

• Plants were maintained  at a commercial level with both fungicide (twice weekly applications), insecticide (VYDATE and BT) and fertilzer (liquid fertilizer through the drip every other day).

Study Results


+77%

[T1] Bacterial Spots' presence @ H4, untreated, no Vegro®

+70%

[T2] Bacterial Spots' presence @ H4, untreated, no Vegro®

+52%

[T5] (Vegro® inside) Bacterial Spots' presence @ H4 + Vegro® + [T1] + [T2]

+64%

[T3] (Vegro® inside) Bacterial Spots' presence @ H4 ([T1] + Vegro®)

-25%

[T5] Vegro®'s efficacy works in synergy to help at reducing the Bacterial Spots on Pepper

-13%

[T3] Net contribution of Vegro®'s efficacy to help at reducing Bacterial spots on Pepper

+146%

Fruit count [T5] (Vegro® inside) Vs [T1]

+58.3%

Fruit count [T5] (Vegro® inside) Vs [T2]

+80.5%

Fruit count [T3] (Vegro® inside) Vs [T1]

+20%

Fruit count [T3] (Vegro® inside) Vs [T2]

+44.6 Lbs

More weight count between [T5] and [T1] GS1

+99%

In percentage between [T5] (Vegro® inside) and [T1] GS1

+26.6 Lbs

More weight count between [T5] and [T2]

+42.2%

In percentage between [T5] (Vegro® inside) and [T2]

+23.5 Lbs

More weight count between [T3] (Vegro® inside) Vs [T1]

+52.2%

In percentage between [T3] and [T1] GS1

+4.5%

Progression in percentage (both Vegro® inside) between [T4] and [T3]...

x10 times

LESS trash between [T5] (Vegro® inside) and [T1]

+68%

Most marketable Pcs in [T5]

+10%

More JUMBO's size with Vegro® in [T3], [T4] and [T5] than in [T1] GS1

+28%

More XL size in [T3] (Vegro® added to T1) than in [T1]

67.5%

Most marketable Pcs (J,Xl,L) in [T3]

+1%

Difference of efficacy between [T4] and [T3]

0%

Vegro® is zero Phytotoxicity

Objectives: To demonstrate the capacity of Vegro® to improve the efficacy of the fungicides at helping to reduce the Bacterial spots on Pepper and also to promote a more natural agriculture. Main parameters monitored for this study: Pressure disease (severity); Yield (weight & fruit counts) and fruit size distribution.

For a better view of the graphs and charts, reposition your mobile device into landscape mode.

BACTERIAL SPOT REDUCTION (monitored by the degree of presence in %)

Higher are the bars, bad it is, and brownish colors are without any Vegro®'s presence and the opposite in greenish colors.

Rate of the infection by the Bacterial Spots in % at last harvest (H4):

  • [T1]  77%; [T2] 70%; [T3] 64%; [T4] 63%; [T5] 52%
  •  -25% Bacterial spots when using [T5] program Vs [T1]
  • -13%  Bacterial spots when using [T3] (Vegro® added to T1) Vs [T1]
  • -14% Bacterial spots when using [T4] Vs [T1]
  • -1% difference of efficacy between [T4] and [T3]

Vegro® shows a net contribution of -13% Bacterial spots presence when compared to [T1] and -25% when combined with other fungicides and (0-28-26) and still by comparaison to [T1].

Also there is strong consistency between the harvests (H1,H2,H3,H4), since the first harvest the results are already obvious and getting confirmed until the end with even more significant differences.

 

This graph is about to demonstrate the efficacy of Vegro® to help at reducing the Bacterial Spot disease. Important to note that, [T4] is [T2] but combined with Vegro®. The results shows a reduction of -14% by comparison with [T1]. But this means also that the net contribution of the fungicides (Manzate max+Kocide 2000+Bravo Wstk) are of about -1% when compared to [T3] (Vegro® added to T1). These results shows clearly the interest in using Vegro®. Also it shows that a program combining simply [T1] + Vegro® + (0-28-26) might an interesting treatment to try... "H" means the number of Harvests, H1 for Harvest 1 and etc

Fruit count (unit count) with [T5] it is +146%in comparison to [T1] and + 58.3% with [T2]

[T5] GS+Fungicides as in [T2]+ Metabolite Plus (0-28-26) compared to other treatments:

  • +192 pieces count Vs [T1], means +146%
  • +122 pieces count Vs [T2], means +58.4%
  • +80 pieces count Vs [T3], means +31.8%
  • +33 pieces count Vs [T4], means +11%

Means also [T3] (Vegro® simply added to T1) and in comparison to the Grower Std [T1]:

  • +112 pieces count Vs [T1], means +80.5%
  • +42 pieces count Vs [T2], means +20%

This graph shows clearly the benefit and interest in using Vegro® combined or not with other fungicides than ones present in [T1]

Weight count (in Lb): +99% in [T5] Vs [T1] and +42.2% Vs [T2]

[T5] GS+Fungicides as in [T2]+ Metabolite Plus (0-28-26) compared to other treatments:

  • +44.6 Lbs Vs [T1], means +99%
  • +26.6 Lbs Vs [T2], means +42.2%
  • +21,1 Lbs Vs [T3], means +30.8%
  • +23.4 Lbs Vs [T4], means +35.3%

Means also [T3] (Vegro® simply added to T1) and in comparison to the Grower Std [T1]:

  • +23.5 Lbs Vs [T1], means +52.2%
  • +5.5 Lbs Vs [T2], means +8.7%

And at last, it also means that when [T3] is compared to [T4]

  • +2.3 Lbs is the difference in weight count between [T3] and [T4]
  • +4.5 % progression only between these two treatments...

Vegro® shows here its ability to produce more quality fruits. Please note that [T3] with simply Vegro® added to [T1], produces more weight count to any other treatments after [T5]

Fruit Size Distribution: +10% more Jumbo's, +20% XL, +11% L, -1.7% M, -23% S, -16.2% Trash when compared [T5] Vs [T1]

Results for the two main grower standards:

  • [T1] GS1 is 0% jumbo's, 7.4% XL, 19.9% L, 21% M, 33.6% S and 18% Trash
  • [T2] GS2 is 3% jumbo's, 19.4% XL, 26% L, 27% M, 18% S and 6.5% Trash

[T5] GS+Fungicides as in [T2]+ Metabolite Plus (0-28-26) by comparison to other treatments such as:

  • [T5] Vs [T1] >> +10% J, +20% XL, +11% L, -1.7% M, -23% S, -16.2% Trash, means also x10 times less trash than [T1]
  • [T5] Vs [T2] >> +6.6% J, +8% XL, +5.2% L, -7.7% M, -7.3% S, -4.7% Trash Vs [T2]
  • [T5], [T4], [T3] >> each of these treatments makes more Jumbo's than [T1] by +10%

Means also [T3] (Vegro® added to T1) and in comparison to the [T1] GS1:

  • +10% jumbo's Vs [T1] or +7% Vs [T2]
  • [T3] shows same amount of Jumbo's than [T4] and [T5] and even a little bit more than [T5]
  • +28% is the amount of XL for [T3] and it is the best score among all treatments
  • +20.6% XL sizes in [T3] Vs [T1] and +8.4% Vs [T2]
  • 16% is the share of medium size obtained for [T3], it is the smallest share obtained among all the treatments

Fruit grade considered for this trial: Jumbo - 3 3/4 inch diam., 3 1/2inch length (45 count and fewer), Extra Large - 3 1/2 inch diam, 3 1/2 inch length (46-55 count), Large - 3 1/4 inch diam., 3 inch length (56-70 count), Medium - 3 inch diam., 3 inch diam., 2 1/2 inch length (71-85 count), Small - 2 1/2 inch diam., 2 inch length (86-110 count), Trash. It is important to note that USDA fruit size grade is less restrictive (Ref here on grey zone at fruit grading)

Fruit size break down by importance for [T3]

Here under the most marketable sizes for Jumbo's, XL and L:

  • 67.5% is the addition of the shares for [T3]
  • 68.1% same as above but for [T5]
  • +0.6% difference between [T3] and [T5]
  • 60.6% same as above but for [T4]
  • 7% more marketable fruits in [T3] than in [T4]

If we add small and trash together, we obtain:

  • [T5] 12.5%; [T4] 19.4%; [T3] 16.8%; [T2] 24.5%; [T1] 51.6%  

67.5%

The most marketable share

The graph up here represent the break down for [T3] where more than 67.5% of the sizes are comprised between jumbo's, XL and L. It also show that [T3] is the best treatment for the XL size and still [T3] shows the smallest shares of Trash and smalls after [T5]

Trash and Smalls

If by treatment we add, small and trash together, we obtain:

  • [T5] 12.5%; [T4] 19.4%; [T3] 16.8%; [T2] 24.5%; [T1] 51.6%  

16.8%

[T3] best after [T5]

The correlation between unit count, weight count and now fruit size, show another time here that best treatment is [T5] followed by [T3] simply Vegro® added to [T1] the Grower Std