Large Perennial Fruit tree in 2018 for "MELANOSE " disease (Grapefruit in this study)

Study Investigator: J. Curtis, Phd

Location of Study: Florida, USA, open field

Study Period: Jun 2018 - Jan 2019

[T3] is the rate of 1 Pint per Acre
App 1

1 Pint/Acre

06/05/18

App 2

1 Pint/Acre

07/09/18

App 3

1 Pint/Acre

08/06/18

App 4

1 Pint/Acre

09/03/18

[T4] is the rate of 1 Quart per Acre
App 1

1 Quart/Acre

06/05/18

App 2

1 Quart/Acre

07/09/18

App 3

1 Quart/Acre

08/06/18

App 4

1 Quart/Acre

09/03/18

AGRONOMIC PROTOCOL

This trial was conducted with a reputed grower of citrus in the indian river district, Florida within a standard Floridan grove, open field.

  • • Grapefruit trees (cv. white on swingle rootstock) were planted in October 1988 (29 yrs old, perennial height = ca. 13 ft, hedged each year)
  • • The row spacing was 24 ft and the tree spacing was 14 ft.
  • • Each plot comprised five (5) trees (24 ft width x 70 ft length) and each plot was separated by an untreated buffer tree
  • There were four (4) replicate plots for each treatment.

No fungicide was applied to the trial area during this study.

TREATMENTS
  • TOTAL: 4 applications (A, B, C, D) at the periodicity of once a month.
  • [T1] Untreated A.K.A Control (Ctrl): NO FUNGICIDE incorporated   
  • [T2] Ctrl + HEADLINE @ 12 fl. oz./Acre + NIS @ 0.25% V/V
  • [T3] Ctrl + CYAN 365® @ 1 Pt/Acre
  • [T4] Ctrl + CYAN 365® @ 1 Qt/Acre
APPLICATIONS
  • • Foliar Applications (Apps. A-D; Trts. 2-4)
  • Foliar applications were made on:
    • • 6/5/2018 (App. A),
    • • 7/9/2018 (App. B),
    • • 8/6/2018 (App. C),
    • • 9/3/2018 (App. D).
  • Treatments were applied with a tractor-mounted sprayer (Rears Pak-Blast, 100 gallon sprayer) at 250 GPA (spray mix = 38 gallon + 7.0 gallon overage = 45 gallon total spray volume), 200 PSI and at a tractor speed of 1.7 MPH (1700 RPM, Gear A4). Each side of the plot was sprayed with 5 nozzles/side (ceramic: D8 x 5; all fitted with a D45 whirlplate).

EVALUATIONS

The primary evaluations were taken on 1/7/2019, 126 days after D application (126 DAD)

• Fruit count and weight:

  • All fruit were harvested from three (3) trees/plot.

  • Fruit were counted(COUNT) and weighed ( lb) and the mean value calculated/3TREE.

  • Fruit were counted at the base of three (3) trees/PLOT and the percentage (%) fruit drop calculated.

• FRUIT DROP was also evaluated.

• 2. Fruit size:

  • A sub-sample of 200 fruit were sized with rings into nine (7) commercial grades (DIAMET %) for grapefruit; 23 (largest), 27, 32, 36, 40, 48 and 56 (smallest).

  • Grade 23 fruit are usually rejected for juice.

  • Grades 32-40 are the ideal sizes for fresh market (export).

  • Grade 56 can be still fresh market or juice.

  • This grade is based on how many fruit can fit into a 4/5 carton. For example, a grade 32 means that 32 of these fruit can fit into a single carton. A field box = 2 cartons. Values are presented as percentage (%) of fruit for each category.

MELANOSE ON FRUIT (DIAPCI)
  • A sub-sample of 200 fruits was evaluated for DIAPCI (DAMDIS%)
  • Fruit were evaluated into three (3) marketability categories for DIAPCI:
  • • 1) Fresh market - no damage;
  • • 2) Fresh market <20% damage
  • • 3) Juice only >20% damage.

 

MELANOSE ON FOLIAGE (DIAPCI)
  • The underside of leaves on four (4) branches/tree x 3 trees/plot (12 BRANCH/1 PLOT) were rated for the percentage of DIAPCI disease (P%INF; 0% = no disease....100%= totally infested).

PHYTO-TOXICITY
  • Foliage on trees in each plot were examined for any signs of phytotoxicity (discoloration, etc.) at 126 DAD and using a 0-100% rating scale: 0 = no phytotoxicity and 100% = dead foliage.

Study Results


8.6%

Melanose severity goes down from 19.6% to 8.6% with Cyan 365® HR [T4] Vs [T1]

+25%

Marketability improvement between [T1] Ctrl (no fungicide) Vs [T4] Cyan 365 HR

+18.2%

More fruit count with [T4] Cyan 365® HR Vs [T1] Ctrl (no fungicide)

+17.3%

More fruit weight with [T4] Cyan 365® HR Vs [T1] Ctrl (no fungicide)

-62%

Less fruit drop with Cyan 365® LR [T3] Vs [T1] Ctrl (no fungicide)

7.5%

Is the rate of fruit drop with Cyan 365® LR. (best)

+43.2%

Cyan 365® improves the efficacy of the fungicide. [T2] Grow Std Vs [T3] Cyan 365® Low rate

-41.3%

Is the rate of Melanose reduction of Foliage with Cyan 365® HR [T4] Vs [T1]

0%

[T4] Cyan 365® is zero Phyto-toxicity

Objectives: To demonstrate the ability of CYAN 365® to improve the efficacy of the fungicides against melanose but also to help to grow more quality yield, more natural, more sustainable and more profitable.

For a better view of the graphs and charts, reposition your mobile device into landscape mode.

MELANOSE SEVERITY (DIAPCI) ON FRUIT (in %)
  • Results of Melanose severity on fruit (%): 19.5% [T1]; 7.6% [T2]; 11.1% [T3]; 8.6% [T4]
  • Cyan 365® at High Rate (1 Qt/Acre) as in [T4] performs as well as [T2] Grower Std with the fungicide.
  • 1% is the difference of efficacy between the two treatments. [T2] Vs [T4] 
  • • 11% is the degree of efficacy for Cyan 365® to help at reducing the presence of the melanose on the fruit. [T1] Vs [T4]

Notes: Cyan 365® is not a fungicide and is not pretending to be, however these results reenforce the idea to combine Cyan 365® with a fungicide (copper treatment).

MARKETABILITY OF THE FRUIT (in%)
  • • This is here the pack-out ratio, the production which will goes directly to the Fresh market.
  • • As you may see, there is a narrow difference of efficacy between Cyan 365 and Copper treatment. [T4] Vs [T2]
  • • This results reenforce the idea to combine Cyan 365® with a copper treatment might give even greater results.

Note: Cyan 365® contains by the way, Alginic acid which helps to better tolerate copper treatment and might help to reduce SAR (self acquiring resistance)

FRUIT COUNT (in number)
  • • Results of fruit count (number): 558 [T1]; 628 [T2]; 626 [T3]; 660 [T4]
  • • Cyan 365® at High rate (1Qt/Acre) as in [T4] performs the best at improving the number of fruits.
  • • 660 Pcs is the best number of fruit obtained within all, it is [T4]. 
  • • 558 Pcs is the number of fruit obtained with the control in [T1] with no fungicide incorporated.
  • +18.3% more fruit count in [T4] compared to [T1] fungicide added.

Notes: 626 pieces of fruits with [T3] Cyan 365 at Low rate (1Pt/acre), this means a difference of less 34 pieces of fruit with [T4] Cyan 365 at His Rate (1Qt/Acre). Means High rate is more efficient by +5% compared to Low rate.

FRUIT WEIGHT (in Lb)
  • • Results of fruit weight (Lb) : 348.5 [T1]; 384.8 [T2]; 391.4 [T3]; 409 [T4]
  • • Cyan 365® at High rate (1Qt/Acre) as in [T4] performs the best at improving the fruit weight.
  • • 409 Lbs is the best rate obtained [T4] for fruit weight.
  • +17.3% more weight count in [T4] compared to [T1] Fungicide added
  • • 391.4 lbs Followed by close by the Cyan 365 at the low rate 1 Pt/acre
  • • 384 Lbs with the Grower Standard in [T2]
  • • 348.5 Lbs is the control with no fungicide

Notes: [T4] with Cyan 365 at the high rate (1Qt/Acre) presents the best results and compared to the control in [T1], it is not less than +60.5 Lbs difference, which means +17.36% in weight count.

FRUIT DROP (in number)
  • • Results of fruit drop (number): 129 [T1]; 86 [T2]; 48.8 [T3]; 68.5 [T4]
  • Cyan 365® at low rate (1Pt/Acre) as in [T3] performs the best for the reduction of the fruit drop.
  • -62% (less), is the rate of the fruit drop reduction between [T3] Cyan 365 LR added Vs [T1] Ctrl
  • • -43.2% less Fruit drop between [T3] Cyan 365 LR and [T2] fungicide added to the Ctrl.

Notes: Cyan 365® at Low Rate (1 Pt/Acre) produces Less 11.3% fruit drop difference between [T1] the control without fungicide and [T3] the same control but supplemented with Cyan 365 at low rate.

Rate of the Fruit drop reduction with other treatments Vs the Control [T1]
  • • Rate of Fruit drop reduction for the other treatments by comparison with the Control in [T1] (%): +33% [T2]; +62% [T3]; 47% [T4]
  • With Cyan 365® in [T3] no fungicide but Cyan 365® added at low rate (1 Pt/acre) to the control [T1] and in comparison with the control in [T1] (no fungicide + no Cyan 365) you will obtain less fruit drop by -62%

62%

[T3] is 62% More fruit drop reduction than [T1] Ctrl

FRUIT DROP (in %)
  • • Results of fruit drop (%): 18.8% [T1]; 12% [T2]; 7.5% [T3]; 9.9% [T4]
  • Cyan 365® at low rate (1Pt/Acre) as in [T3] performs the best for the reduction of the fruit drop.
  • 7.5% is the best rate obtained [T3] for reduction of the Fruit drop. 
  • • 12%  in [T2] with the fungicide added.
  • • 18.8% for the control without the fungicide.

Notes: Cyan 365® at Low Rate (1 Pt/Acre) produces Less 11.3% fruit drop difference between [T1] the control without fungicide and [T3] the same control but supplemented with Cyan 365 at low rate.

FRUIT SIZE DISTRIBUTION (in %)
  • • The control [T1] do not show any 23, 27, 32's 
  • • [T2] and [T4] are very similar.

Note: It obvious that it might be very interesting to combine the fungicide with Cyan 365 High rate, means 1 Qt/Acre

SEVERITY MELANOSE (DIAPCI) ON FOLIAGE (in %)
  • • Results of Melanose severity on foliage (%): 61% [T1]; 35% [T2]; 40.9% [T3]; 35.8% [T4]
  • Cyan 365® at High Rate (1 Qt/Acre) as in [T4] performs as well as [T2] Grower Std with the fungicide.
  • 0.8% is the difference of efficacy between the two treatments. [T2] Vs [T4] 
  • • 25.2% is the degree of efficacy for Cyan 365® to help at reducing the presence of the melanose on foliage. [T1] Vs [T4]

Note: Cyan 365® is not a fungicide and is not pretending to be, however these results reenforce the idea to combine Cyan 365® with a fungicide (copper treatment).