Large Perennial Fruit tree in 2018 for "GREASY SPOT" disease (Grapefruit in this study)

Study Investigator: J. Curtis, Phd

Location of Study: Florida, USA, open field

Study Period: Jun 2018 - Jan 2019

[T3] is the rate of 1 Pint per Acre
App 1

1 Pint/Acre

06/05/18

App 2

1 Pint/Acre

07/09/18

App 3

1 Pint/Acre

08/06/18

App 4

1 Pint/Acre

09/03/18

[T4] is the rate of 1 Quart per Acre
App 1

1 Quart/Acre

06/05/18

App 2

1 Quart/Acre

07/09/18

App 3

1 Quart/Acre

08/06/18

App 4

1 Quart/Acre

09/03/18

AGRONOMIC PROTOCOL

This trial was conducted with a reputed grower of citrus in the indian river district, Florida within a standard Floridan grove, open field.

  • • Grapefruit trees (cv. white on swingle rootstock) were planted in October 1988 (29 yrs old, perennial height = ca. 13 ft, hedged each year)
  • • The row spacing was 24 ft and the tree spacing was 14 ft.
  • • Each plot comprised five (5) trees (24 ft width x 70 ft length) and each plot was separated by an untreated buffer tree
  • There were four (4) replicate plots for each treatment.

No fungicide was applied to the trial area during this study.

TREATMENTS
  • TOTAL: 4 applications (A, B, C, D) at the periodicity of once a month.
  • [T1] Untreated A.K.A Control (Ctrl): NO FUNGICIDE incorporated   
  • [T2] Ctrl + HEADLINE @ 12 fl. oz./Acre + NIS @ 0.25% V/V
  • [T3] Ctrl + CYAN 365® @ 1 Pt/Acre
  • [T4] Ctrl + CYAN 365® @ 1 Qt/Acre
APPLICATIONS
  • • Foliar Applications (Apps. A-D; Trts. 2-4)
  • Foliar applications were made on:
    • • 6/5/2018 (App. A),
    • • 7/9/2018 (App. B),
    • • 8/6/2018 (App. C),
    • • 9/3/2018 (App. D).
  • Treatments were applied with a tractor-mounted sprayer (Rears Pak-Blast, 100 gallon sprayer) at 250 GPA (spray mix = 38 gallon + 7.0 gallon overage = 45 gallon total spray volume), 200 PSI and at a tractor speed of 1.7 MPH (1700 RPM, Gear A4). Each side of the plot was sprayed with 5 nozzles/side (ceramic: D8 x 5; all fitted with a D45 whirlplate).

EVALUATIONS

The primary evaluations were taken on 1/7/2019, 126 days after D application (126 DAD)

• Fruit count and weight:

  • All fruit were harvested from three (3) trees/plot.

  • Fruit were counted(COUNT) and weighed ( lb) and the mean value calculated/3TREE.

  • Fruit were counted at the base of three (3) trees/PLOT and the percentage (%) fruit drop calculated.

• FRUIT DROP was also evaluated.

• 2. Fruit size:

  • A sub-sample of 200 fruit were sized with rings into nine (7) commercial grades (DIAMET %) for grapefruit; 23 (largest), 27, 32, 36, 40, 48 and 56 (smallest).

  • Grade 23 fruit are usually rejected for juice.

  • Grades 32-40 are the ideal sizes for fresh market (export).

  • Grade 56 can be still fresh market or juice.

  • This grade is based on how many fruit can fit into a 4/5 carton. For example, a grade 32 means that 32 of these fruit can fit into a single carton. A field box = 2 cartons. Values are presented as percentage (%) of fruit for each category.

GREASY SPOT ON FRUIT (MYCOCI)
  • A sub-sample of 200 fruits was evaluated for Greasy spot (MYCOCI) disease (DAMDIS%)
  • MYCOCI = Mycosphaerella Citri
  • Fruit were evaluated into three (3) marketability categories for MYCOCI (Greasy Spot):
  • • 1) Fresh market - no damage;
  • • 2) Fresh market <10% damage
  • • 3) Juice only >10% damage.
PHYTO-TOXICITY
  • Foliage on trees in each plot were examined for any signs of phytotoxicity (discoloration, etc.) at 126 DAD and using a 0-100% rating scale: 0 = no phytotoxicity and 100% = dead foliage.

Study Results


35.8%

GS severity goes down from 61% to 35.8% with Cyan 365® HR [T4] Vs [T1]

+91.4%

Pack-Out Rate in [T3] Cyan 365® Low Rate (1Pt/Acre)

+68.3%

NO DAMAGE fruit in [T3] Cyan 365 Low Rate (1Pt/Acre)

+37.4%

Marketability improvement between [T1] Ctrl (no fungicide) Vs [T3] Cyan 365 LR

+18.2%

More fruit count with [T4] Cyan 365® HR Vs [T1] Ctrl (no fungicide)

+17.3%

More fruit weight with [T4] Cyan 365® HR Vs [T1] Ctrl (no fungicide)

-62%

Less fruit drop with Cyan 365® LR [T3] Vs [T1] Ctrl (no fungicide)

7.5%

Is the rate of fruit drop with Cyan 365® LR. (best)

0%

[T4] Cyan 365® is zero Phyto-toxicity

Objectives: To demonstrate the ability of CYAN 365® to improve the efficacy of the fungicides against Greasy Spot but also to help to grow more quality yield, more natural, more sustainable and more profitable.

For a better view of the graphs and charts, reposition your mobile device into landscape mode.

SEVERITY GREASY SPOT (MYCOCI) ON FRUIT (in %)
  • Results of Greasy Spot severity on fruit (%): 61% [T1]; 35% [T2]; 40.9% [T3]; 35.8% [T4]
  • Cyan 365® at High Rate (1 Qt/Acre) as in [T4] performs as well as [T2] Grower Std with the fungicide.
  • 0.8% is the difference of efficacy between the two treatments. [T2] Vs [T4] 
  • • 25.2% is the degree of efficacy for Cyan 365® to help at reducing the presence of the melanose on the fruit. [T1] Vs [T4]

Notes: Cyan 365® is not a fungicide and is not pretending to be, however these results reenforce the idea to combine Cyan 365® with a fungicide (copper treatment).

MARKETABILITY OF THE FRUIT (in%)
  • • This is here the pack-out ratio, the production which will goes directly to the Fresh market highest value or to Juice lesser value.
  • • As you may see, [T3] Cyan 365® at Low Rate shows the best result on "NO DAMAGE" fruit by Greasy Spot.
  • 91.4% is the total packout rate on [T3] with Cyan 365® Low Rate compared to [T2] the grower standard 89.6%
  • • Pack out ratio with [T1] no fungicide is 54% and [T3] with Cyan 365® added at the rate of 1 Pint per Acre: 91.4%
  • • These results reenforce the idea to combine Cyan 365® with a copper treatment might give great results.

Notes: Cyan 365® contains by the way, Alginic acid which helps to better tolerate copper treatment and might help to reduce SAR (self acquiring resistance). By passing the cursor on the graph you will obtain the real data for each color.

BREAKDOWN (in %) FOR [T3] CYAN 365® Low Rate (1 Pt/Acre)

91.4 %

Pack-Out rate,

68.3% No Damage

23.1% Low Damage

8.6% High Damage

FRUIT COUNT (in number)
  • • Results of fruit count (number): 558 [T1]; 628 [T2]; 626 [T3]; 660 [T4]
  • • Cyan 365® at High rate (1Qt/Acre) as in [T4] performs the best at improving the number of fruits.
  • • 660 Pcs is the best number of fruit obtained within all, it is [T4]. 
  • • 558 Pcs is the number of fruit obtained with the control in [T1] with no fungicide incorporated.
  • • +102 pieces of fruit differ from [T4] and [T1], means +18.28%

Notes: 626 pieces of fruits with [T3] Cyan 365 at Low rate (1Pt/acre), this means a difference of less 34 pieces of fruit with [T4] Cyan 365 at His Rate (1Qt/Acre). Means High rate is more efficient by +5% compared to Low rate.

FRUIT WEIGHT (in Lb)
  • • Results of fruit weight (Lb) : 348.5 [T1]; 384.8 [T2]; 391.4 [T3]; 409 [T4]
  • • Cyan 365® at High rate (1Qt/Acre) as in [T4] performs the best at improving the fruit weight.
  • • 409 Lbs is the best rate obtained [T4] for fruit weight. 
  • • 391.4 lbs Followed by close by the Cyan 365 at the low rate 1 Pt/acre
  • • 384 Lbs with the Grower Standard in [T2]
  • • 348.5 Lbs is the control with no fungicide

Notes: [T4] with Cyan 365 at the high rate (1Qt/Acre) presents the best results and compared to the control in [T1], it is not less than +60.5 Lbs difference, which means +17.36% in weight count.

FRUIT DROP (in number)
  • • Results of fruit drop (number): 129 [T1]; 86 [T2]; 48.8 [T3]; 68.5 [T4]
  • Cyan 365® at low rate (1Pt/Acre) as in [T3] performs the best for the reduction of the fruit drop.
  • 7.5% is the best rate obtained [T3] for reduction of the Fruit drop. 
  • • 12% for the grower standard in [T2]
  • • 18.8% for the control without the fungicide

Notes: Cyan 365® at Low Rate (1 Pt/Acre) produces Less 11.3% fruit drop difference between [T1] the control without fungicide and [T3] the same control but supplemented with Cyan 365 at low rate.

FRUIT DROP (in %)
  • • Results of fruit drop (%): 18.8% [T1]; 12% [T2]; 7.5% [T3]; 9.9% [T4]
  • Cyan 365® at low rate (1Pt/Acre) as in [T3] performs the best for the reduction of the fruit drop.
  • 7.5% is the best rate obtained [T3] for reduction of the Fruit drop. 
  • • 12% for the grower standard in [T2]
  • • 18.8% for the control without the fungicide

Notes: Cyan 365® at Low Rate (1 Pt/Acre) produces Less 11.3% fruit drop difference between [T1] the control without fungicide and [T3] the same control but supplemented with Cyan 365 at low rate.

FRUIT SIZE DISTRIBUTION (in %)
  • • The control [T1] do not show any 23, 27, 32's 
  • • [T2] and [T4] are very similar.

Note: It obvious that it might be very interesting to combine the fungicide with Cyan 365 High rate, means 1 Qt/Acre