Large Perennial Fruit tree for "CANKER" Disease on Citrus (NAVEL in this study)

Study Investigator: J. Curtis, Phd

Location of Study: Florida, USA, open field

Study Period: July to October 2018

[T2, T4] Treatments for this trial with CYAN 365® in Open Field at: 1 Qt/acre Cyan 365®
App A

1 Quart/Acre

Jun. 20

App B

1 Quart/Acre

Jul. 11

App C

1 Quart/Acre

Aug. 1

App D

1 Quart/Acre

Aug. 23

App E

1 Quart/Acre

Sep. 13

App F

1 Quart/Acre

Oct. 03

[T3] Treatments for this trial with CYAN 365® in Open Field at: 2 Qt/acre Cyan 365®
App A

2 Qts/Acre

Jun. 20

App B

2 Qts/Acre

Jul. 11

App C

2 Quart/Acre

Aug. 1

App D

2 Quart/Acre

Aug. 23

App E

2 Quart/Acre

Sep. 13

App F

2 Quart/Acre

Oct. 03

TREATMENTS

No fungicide applications were made by grower on this test site.

Applied: A,B,C,D,E,F and replicated 4 times

.........................................................

Treatment 1 [T1]: Control AKA Ctrl

Applied: A,B,C,D,E,F and replicated 4 times

  • • Untreated
  • • It corresponds to the Grower Standard but with no fungicide.
  • • No fungicide

.........................................................

Treatment 2 [T2]: (Cyan 365® inside)

Applied: A,B,C,D,E,F and replicated 4 times

  • • Ctrl [T1] (no fungicide)
  • • Cyan 365® @ 1 Qt/Acre 

.........................................................

Treatment 3 [T3]: (Cyan 365® inside)

Applied: A,B,C,D,E,F and replicated 4 times

  • • Ctrl [T1]
  • • Cyan 365® @ 2 Qts/Acre 

.........................................................

Treatment 4 [T4]: (Cyan 365® inside)

Applied: A,B,C,D,E,F and replicated 4 times

  • • Ctrl [T1]
  • • Cyan 365® @ 1 Qt/Acre 
  • • Champ DP @ 4 Lb/acre

.........................................................

Treatment 5 [T5]: (NO Cyan 365®),

Also can be called as Grower Standard in full (with fungicide)

Applied: A,B,C,D,E,F and replicated 4 times

  • • Ctrl [T1] 
  • • Champ DP @ 4Lb/acre

.........................................................

 

AGRONOMIC PROTOCOL
  • • In open field, in a commercial grove with one's largest citrus grower in Florida-USA
  • • Location "Indian River district Florida
  • • Sweet Orange trees (cv. Navel on sour orange rootstock)
  • • Planted in 2015 (3 yrs old; perennial height = 5-6 ft).  
  • • The row spacing was 25 ft (two rows/bed) and tree spacing was 10 ft.
  • • Each plot comprised five (5) trees (25 ft width x 50 ft length) and each plot was separated by an untreated buffer tree.  
  • There were four (4) replicate plots for each treatment.
  • No fungicide applications were made by grower on this test site. 
APPLICATIONS
  • • Foliar Applications (Apps. A-F, Trts: 2 - 9)
  • Foliar applications were made on:
  • • 06/20/2018 (App. A),
  • • 07/11/2018 (App. B),
  • • 08/1/2018 (App. C),
  • • 08/23/2018 (App. D),  
  • • 09/13/2018 (App. E),
  • • 10/3/2018 (App. F). 
METHODOLOGY
  • • Treatments were applied with a tractor mounted sprayer (Rears Pak-Blast, 100 gallon sprayer). 
  • •Treatments were applied at 100 GPA (spray mix = 11.48 gallon mix + 3.52 gallon overage = 15 gallon total spray volume), 200 PSI and at a tractor speed of 2.7 MPH (1700 RPM, Gear B2).  
  • • Each side of the plot was sprayed with 5 nozzles/side (ceramic: D8 x 5 and all nozzles were fitted with a D25 whirlplate).
EVALUATIONS
  • CANKER or XANTCI
  • Scientific name: Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri
  • XANTCI Severity Rating (0-100%):
  • • The % severity of XANTCI (0-100% scale; 0 = no infection......100%=all fruit/foliage infected) was estimated for each of three (3) center trees/plot (DAMDIS%/3 TREE) 0n 7/11/2018, 8/23/2018 and 10/23/2018.
CANKER [XANTCI] Disease
  •  XANTCI Infection of Branches: 
  • • The total number of leaves with one or more XANTCI lesions were counted on each of 4 branches on both the West and East side of  the center three (3) trees/plot  (12 BRANCH/1 PLOT) on 7/11/2018, 8/23/2018 and 10/23/2018.

 

  • XANTCI Infection on Fruit:
  • • Both healthy fruit and XANTCI infected fruit were counted on 3 trees/plot on 10/23/2018. 
  • • The percentage (%) XANTCI infection of fruit was then calculated.  
  • • It is important to note that  any fruit with a XANTCI lesion was recorded as infected.

 

  • Fruit drop:
  • • The total number of XANTCI infected fruit on the ground (FRUDRO) under each of three (3) trees/plot was counted on 10/23/2018.  
  • • The percentage (%) fruit drop was then calculated.
PHYTO-TOXICITY
  • • Trees in each plot were examined for signs of phytotoxicity (discoloration etc.) on 7/11/2018, 8/23/2018 and 10/23/2018 and using a 0-100% rating scale: 0% = no phytotoxicity and 100% = dead trees.

 

Study Results


90.2%

[T1] Canker on fruit with the Control (no fungicide)

17%

[T2] Canker on fruit (Cyan 365® added to Control with no fungicide)

18%

[T4] Canker on fruit (Cyan 365® + Fungicide)

29.2%

Canker on fruit in [T5] (Grow. Std. with fungicide)

75.6%

[T1] Canker on Foliage for the Control (no fungicide)

53.6%

[T4] Canker on Foliage (Cyan 365® + Fungicide)

58%

[T2] Canker on Foliage (Cyan 365 + no fungicide)

61.2%

[T5] Canker on Foliage (Grower Std with fungicide)

45.1%

[T1] Fruit drop rate (Control with no fungicide)

9.2%

[T4] Fruit drop (Cyan 365® + Fungicide)

10.5%

[T2] Fruit drop (Ctrl + Cyan 365® + no fungicide)

11%

[T5] Fruit drop (Grow. Std + Fungicide)

30.5%

[T1] Leaf drop (Control with no fungicide)

15%

[T2] Cyan 365® + no fungicide

15.9%

[T4] Leaf drop (Cyan 365® + Fungicide)

18.9%

[T5] Leaf drop (Grow Std + Fungicide)

0%

Cyan 365® is zero Phyto-toxicity

Objectives: To demonstrate the ability of CYAN 365® to improve the efficacy of the fungicides for the reduction of Canker disease but also to help to grow more quality yield, more natural, more sustainable and more profitable. Main parameters monitored for this study: Fruit, foliage, Fruit & Leaf drop

For a better view of the graphs and charts, reposition your mobile device into landscape mode.

CANKER ON FRUIT
CANKER SEVERITY ON FRUIT (in %)

Cyan 365® is definitively bringing its contribution in helping to reduce the canker disease on citrus. Here after are the results on FRUIT (navel trees):

Results are: (By passing the cursor over the bars of the graph, result and legend will appear)

  • Canker rating ON FRUIT at the end Oct 2018: [T1] 90.2%, [T2] 17%, [T3] 24.3%, [T4] 18%, [T5] 29.2%
  • [T1] 90.2% (Ctrl with no fungicide)
  • [T2] 17% (Cyan 365® + NO fungicide)
  • [T4] 18% (Cyan 365® + Fungicide)
  • [T5] 29.2% (Grow. Std + Fungicide)

 [T2] is the best treatment, then comes [T4]

Important remarks: This graph shows also some strategies that growers should avoid. Like using Cyan 365 @ 2Qts/Acre, it doesn't work and can eventually be counter productive.

CANKER SEVERITY ON LEAF (in %)

Cyan 365® is definitively bringing its contribution in helping to reduce the canker disease on citrus. Here after are the results on foliage (navel trees):

Results are: (By passing the cursor over the bars of the graph, result and legend will appear)

  • Canker rating on FOLIAGE at the end (Oct 2018): [T1] 75.6%, [T2] 58%, [T3] 70.6%, [T4] 53.6%, [T5] 61.2%
  • [T1] 75.6% (Ctrl with no fungicide)
  • [T2] 58% (Cyan 365® + NO fungicide)
  • [T4] 53.6% (Cyan 365® + Fungicide)
  • [T5] 61.2% (Grow. Std + Fungicide)

[T4] is the best treatment, then comes [T2]

Important remarks: Cyan 365® applied at the rate of 2 Qts/Acre is counter productive when at the rate of 1 Qt/acre it works at best.

RATE OF PREMATURE FRUIT DROP
FRUIT DROP (in %)

Here after are the results on FRUIT (navel trees):

Results are: (By passing the cursor over the bars of the graph, result and legend will appear)

  • Fruit drop (Oct 2018): [T1] 45.1%, [T2] 10.5%, [T3] 11.9%, [T4] 9.2%, [T5] 11%
  • [T1] 45.1% (Ctrl with no fungicide)
  • [T2] 10.5% (Cyan 365® + NO fungicide)
  • [T4] 9.2% (Cyan 365® + Fungicide)
  • [T5] 11% (Grow. Std + Fungicide)

[T4] is the best treatment, then comes [T2]

Important remarks:

LEAF DROP
LEAF DROP (in %)

Here after are the results on FOLIAGE (navel trees):

Results are: (By passing the cursor over the bars of the graph, result and legend will appear)

  • Leaf drop (Oct 2018): [T1] 30.5%, [T2] 15%, [T3] 18.3%, [T4] 15.9%, [T5] 18.9%
  • [T1] 30.5% (Ctrl with no fungicide)
  • [T2] 15% (Cyan 365® + NO fungicide)
  • [T4] 15.9% (Cyan 365® + Fungicide)
  • [T5] 18.9% (Grow. Std + Fungicide)

[T4] is the best treatment, then comes [T2]

 

Important remarks: Even more impact here on Foliage with [T2] (Cyan 365® + NO fungicide)